by Nurwanto

This paper will be presented in International Research Conference on Muhammadiyah (IRCM) in Malang, 29th Nov – 2nd Dec 2012 (Below is my paper abstract):


The paper investigates the textbook on Islamic teachings officially published for Muhammadiyah Senior Secondary Schools. It examines whether the textbook promotes gender justice or injustice. In addition, how the teachers think about the gender discourse is also explored. The study seems important to carry out by taking account of whether the trend of gender discourses which has taken place for some decades in the public is substantially accommodated in the Muhammadiyah schools’ curriculum. As a modern Islamic movement, Muhammadiyah needs to show the extent to which its schools transform gender justice at least in their textbook. Moreover, the teachers’ responses to the existing gender issues as included in the textbook may be crucial to shape since they are translators of the text taught. To clarify this issue, the paper uses content analysis of the textbook and analyses the result of interview with several Muhammadiyah senior secondary schools’ teachers in Yogyakarta. The result of this study shows that even if the content of the official textbook generally emphasizes gender justice, in some cases, it promotes gender injustice and stereotypes. In this case, women might be considered as the culprit while men are seen as those who like perpetrating violence. In addition, the explanation of men’s social roles in the whole Moslems’ history tends to be widely explored whereas that of the possibility of women’s roles is paid less attention. Here, pictures put to ilustrate certain statements also contain gender bias. Such instances could be found in many parts of the textbooks. On the other hand, the textbook starts with the explanation of  the importance of democratic attitudes for Moslems in the framework of societal relations. In the sense, the elaboration of the possibility of men and women to participate in the public is clearly explained by taking account of the Quranic verses and rational arguments. With regard to the teachers’ responses, the writing indicates that they generally agree with the notion of the need for women and men to share and possibly contribute in the public as long as the women in particular do not deny acheter du cialis en ligne their domestic roles. They seem trying to examine the content of the textbook ranging from empirical, rational up to theological considerations. To conclude, the textbook  contains gender justice and injustice orientations which have been responded variously by the teachers.

Key words: Gender; Justice; Injustice; Muhammadiyah; Teachers’ Responses.